Cross-Section of an Animal Cell

Just like any other cells, animal cells are very small and cannot be seen by the naked eye. They are actually invisible to the human eye without using a microscope. The same microscope is what helped scientists discover the main components of the animal cell. A cross-section into the animal cell can indicate all of its components, just like in the picture below:


Cell membrane: the thin protein and fat layer surrounding the cell;

Centrosome (also known as the microtubule organizing center): a small body near the nucleus where microtubules are made;

Cytoplasm: the place housing the organelles; it is very jelly-like;

Nucleus: the body controlling many of the cell’s functions; here is where the DNA is located;

Nucleolus: the organelle contained by the nucleus, where ribosomal RNA is produced;

Nuclear membrane: the membrane surrounding the nucleus;

Golgi body (or Golgi apparatus): the flattened, layered organelle looking like a sack that produces the membranes surrounding the lysosomes; 

Lysosomes (also knwon as cell vesicles) the round organelles containing digestive enzymes where the cell digestion occurs;

Mitochondria: the organelles converting the energy stored in glucose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

Ribosomes: the organelles composed of cytoplasmic granules that are rich in RNA and are the sites of protein synthesis;

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (or rough ER): the organelle transporting materials though the cell, producing proteins in sacks called cisternae;

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (or smooth ER): the organelle transporting materials through the cell; it also contains enzymes and produces and digests both lipids and membrane proteins;

Vacuole: the organelle that fills with food being digested, as well as with waste material that is on its way out of the cell.