Lets look Inside an Animal Cell

Animal cell have several membrane-bound organelles. At the center in the nucleus you will find the DNA or genetic material of the cell. The nucleus is surrounded by a double membrane with tiny hols in it called nuclear pores. DNA is bound with proteins in dispersed fibers called chromatin while the cell is not dividing. However, when the cell divides, the DNA condenses into visible chromosomes. The nucleolus is a region where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is made and ribosomes are initially assembled. Many organelles reside in the cytoplasm. A plasma membrane surrounds the cells.

Inside an animal cell
Inside an animal cell

Animal Stem Cells Could Help Pets

Stem cell therapy is an exciting new way for potentially battle diseases such as cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and so on. For humans, the technology is still mostly in experimental phases. For animals, though, the future is here already.


Several veterinarians in Hawaii have approached stem cell therapy and have managed to ease the aches and pains of aging dogs and cats over the past year. The stem cell treatment they use is a relatively simple process. It involves extracting adult stem cells from the animal’s own fat, then reinjecting them into injured joints to relieve pain from problems such as osteoarthritis, hip dysplasia, and degenerative bone disease.

Veterinarian Cristina Miliaresis wanted to test the treatment before offering it at Surf Paws Animal Hospital. To see if it works, she tested it out on her own dog, a 9-year-old American bulldog/pitbull with ruptured ligaments in both its knees.

The results were great, said the doctor. They were so great that she recently gave her dog a second treatment that has left the pet happy and hyper. “It’s an amazing concept in general, and it’s not something we’ve had the ability to do until now”, said Miliaresis.


Carole Spangler Vaughn, owner of MediVet Hawaii – a company that specializes in regenerative medicine for animals – also said that the treatment is simple and safe. “It’s low risk. We’ve never seen a negative reaction from the actual stem cell therapy”, says the doctor. “Conservatively speaking, 95% of the time they get better and there’s improvement – less pain and more mobility”, added Vaughn.

Embryonic stem cell research for humans has been and still is very controversial. However, the stem cell treatment for animals uses adult stem cells collected from a few tablespoons of the animal’s own fat, which significantly reduces the risk of rejection. Unlike embryonic cells, adult stem cells have not been found to cause cancer, said doctor Vaughn. “You get lots of stem cells in fat. It’s kind of cool”, added Vaughn. “Nobody cares if you take some fat out of somebody”, said Miliaresis.

The procedure costs up to $3,000 and takes just a few hours. The results have all been positive, at times quite dramatic, said the doctor. There’s no way of knowing whether the treatment will prolong a pet’s life, but the doctor says she had “at least five patients who were going to euthanize their pets because they thought they were too uncomfortable”. Those owners saw the quality of life of their pets improve so much that they reversed their decisions.


Other pet owners have seen enough improvement to take their pets off long-term medications that just mask symptoms, says Miliaresis. “Their whole aura improves. They just seen happier. That’s the best thing for me to see – these patients feeling better. It’s really rewarding”, Miliaresis says.

Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease is one of the hardest to cure diseases that can be developed by individuals from all over the world. In fact, these is no cure for this condition, even though treatment can relieve symptoms and improve the general state of patients. Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive condition that ends up destroying memory and mental functions. Alzheimer’s disease is also known as being the most common cause of dementia. In time, patients diagnosed with this condition will loose intellectual and social skills.

How is Alzheimer’s disease formed?

In Alzheimer’s disease, brain cells degenerate and die. This is the main reason why memory and mental function decrease. So, this is why Alzheimer’s disease is considered to be a cell disease.



One of the first symptoms you will experience in case you are suffering from Alzheimer’s disease is memory loss. So, if you have trouble remembering things, seeking a doctor’s advice is the best thing you can do. Symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s disease include difficulties with:

  • Orientation;
  • Speaking and writing;
  • Thinking and reasoning;
  • Making judgments and decisions;
  • Planning and performing familiar tasks.

Other symptoms include:

  • Depression;
  • Social withdrawal;
  • Distrust;
  • Irritability;
  • Changes in sleeping habits;
  • Wandering;
  • Loss of inhibitions;
  • Delusions.



Specialists consider that there actually is a combination of many factors that can lead to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. They may include genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors. However, the effects are clear. Alzheimer’s disease causes damage and kills brain cells.

Age is considered to be a risk factor in the development of Alzheimer’s disease, as well. The risk of developing this condition is much higher for people aged over 65. Women are believed to be at a higher risk of being diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, compared to men. Smoking, lack of exercise, as well as high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol and poorly controlled diabetes may also increase the risk of developing this disease.


Medication and therapy are commonly administrated for Alzheimer’s disease with the main purpose to improve symptoms. They can help patients maximize function and maintain independence, being able this way to lead a normal life. Seeking support is a must for all patients who have been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease.