An animal cell is a very complicated system. However, with some focus and studying, anyone can learn what the different parts of the animal cell do. Here are some of the more notable components of an animal cell, along with the function that they perform:
Golgi Apparatus: This primary function of this cell structure is to process the proteins which are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Once the Golgi apparatus has processed the proteins, they can end up as integral membrane proteins in the plasma membrane, as a part of lyosomes or secreted by exocytosis.
Endoplasmic Reticulum: As you learned when you read about the Golgi apparatus above, one of the functions of the endoplasmic reticulum is to synthesize proteins. However, this is not the only function of this cell structure. The endoplasmic reticulum is also responsible for manufacturing most of the membranes of the cell, as well as lipids.
Additionally, as you may have noticed in the diagram above, there are actually two types of endoplasmic reticulum. The main function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is protein synthesis (the ribosomes on the surface of this type of endoplasmic reticulum are why it is called rough), while the main function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (which does not have ribosomes on its surface) is to synthesize lipids.
Plasma Membrane: Like other cells, animal cells have a plasma membrane. This cell structure serves as the interface between the machinery in the interior of the cell and the extracellular fluid that bathes the animal cell.